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金巴黎彩票DIANHUA:18156565099(WEIXINTONGHAO)

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牛,誰總結的,淬火質量缺陷及控制大全

來源:未知 佚名 2018-12-06 瀏覽
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鋼件淬火后可以提高其強度、硬度及耐磨性,但是工件的原始尺寸或形狀在淬火時會發生人們所不希望的變化,這此變化會成為影響產品質量的缺陷,減小或是避免這些缺陷,首先我們就要知道淬火會產生哪些的缺陷,其形成原因是什么,并找到對應的解決辦法。淬火質量缺陷及控制從以下幾方面進行闡述。

 

1.淬火畸變

CUIHUOJIBIANDELEIXINGKEFENWEILIANGLEI,JITIJIJIBIANHEXINGZHUANGJIBIAN。

CUIHUOQIANHOUGEZHONGZUZHIBITIJIBUTONGSHIYINQITIJIBIANHUADEZHUYAOYUANYIN。YOUMASHITI→BEISHITI→ZHUGUANGTI→AOSHITIDEBITIJIYICIJIANXIAO。YUANSHIZUZHIWEIZHUGUANGTIDEGONGJIANCUIHUOZHUANBIANWEIMASHITI,TIJIZHANGDA。RUOZUZHIYOUDALIANGCANLIUAOSHITI,YOUKENENGSHITIJISUOXIAO。ZHIYOUJINGDUTEBIEGAODEGONGJIANCAIKAOLVTIJIJUNYUNZHANGDAYINQITIJICHICUNBIANHUA。

 

金巴黎彩票 GONGJIANGEBUWEIXIANGDUIWEIZHIHUOCHICUNFASHENGBIANHUA,RUBANGANJIANWANQU、NEIKONGZHANGSUO、KONGJIANJUBIANHUADENGTONGCHENGWEIXINGZHUANGJIBIAN。JIBIANXINGCHENGYUANYINYOUYIXIAJIZHONG:

金巴黎彩票 (1)JIAREWENDUBUJUNYUN,XINGCHENGDEREYINGLIYINQIJIBIANHUOGONGJIANZAILUZHONGFANGZHIBUHELI,ZAIGAOWENCHANGYINZIZHONGCHANSHENGRUBIANJIBIAN。

(2)JIARESHI,SUIJIAREWENDUSHENGGAO,GANGDEQUFUQIANGDUJIANGDI,YICUNZAIGONGJIANNEIBUDECANLIUYINGLI(LENGBIANXINGYINGLI、HANJIEYINGLI、JIJIAGONGYINGLIDENG)DADAOGAOWENXIADEQUFUQIANGDUSHI,JIUHUIYINQIGONGJIANBUJUNYUNSUXINGBIANXINGERZAOCHENGXINGZHUANGJIBIANHECANLIUYINGLISONGCHI。

金巴黎彩票 (3)CUIHUOLENGQUESHIDEBUTONGSHIXINGXINGCHENGDEREYINGLIHEZUZHIYINGLISHIGONGJIANJUBUSUXINGBIANXING。XINGZHUANGFUZADEGONGJIAN,YINQIJIEGOUDETESHUXING,ZAICUIHUOSHI,YINSHOUREHELENGQUESHIDESUDUBUYIYANG,ZENGJIALETADEBIANXINGQINGXIANG。

 

2.減少淬火畸變的途徑和方法

金巴黎彩票 (1)CAIYONGHELIDERECHULIGONGYIKEYOUXIAOJIANSHAOJIBIAN。RUJIANGDICUIHUOJIAREWENDU;HUANMANJIAREHUODUIGONGJIANJINXINGYURE;JINGZHIJIAREFA,JIXICHANGHEJIBODEGONGJIAN,WEILEJIANSHAOYANYUCIJIAOBANDUIGONGJIANDECHONGJIZUOYONG,KECAIYONGDUANDIANJIARE;JIEMIANCHICUNJIAOXIAODEGONGJIAN,RUGUODUIXINBUQIANGDUYAOQIUBUGAO,CAIYONGKUAISUJIARE;HELIKUNZHAHEDIAOGUAGONGJIAN;GENJUGONGZUODEXINGZHUANGCAIYONGHELIDECUIRUFANGSHI;CAIYONGFENJICUIHUOHUODENGWENCUIHUO;GENJUGONGJIANDEXINGZHUANGTEDIANJIBIANXINGGUILV,ZAICUIHUOQIANRENWEIDISHIGONGJIANFANXIANGBIANXING,SHIZHIYUCUIHUOHOUDEJIBIANXIANGDIXIAO。

 

(2)HELISHEJILINGJIAN。RUGONGJIANXINGZHUANGLIQIUDUICHENG,BIMIANJIEMIANXIANGCHAXUANSHU,CONGERJIANSHAOYINLENGQUEBUJUNYINQIDEJIBIAN;YIJIBIANDECAOXINGGONGJIANHUOKAIKOUGONGJIAN,WEILEJIANSHAOCAOKOUZHANGDAHUOSUOXIAO,CUIHUOQIANSHIQICHENGWEIFENGBIJIEGOU,RUZAICAOKOUCHUZENGJIAJIN,CUIHUOHOUZAIQIEKAI;BUSHEGONGYIKONG,JIANSHAOXINGQIANGSUOXIAO;FUZAJIANCAIYONGZUHEJIEGOU,JIJIANGYIGEFUZAGONGJIANFENJIECHENGJIGEJIANDANBUFEN,FENBIESHIWEIJIBIANCUIHUOHOU,ZAIZUZHUANGQILAI;ZHENGQUEXUANYONGGANGCAI,RUDUIJINGDUGAO,YUNXURECHULIJIBIANXIAODEGONGMOJU,KEXUANYONGWEIJIBIANGANG,GAOJINGDUSULIAOMOJUYEKEXUANYONGYUYINGGANG。

 

(3)HELIDEDUANZAOHEYUBEIRECHULI。YANZHONGDETANHUAWUPIANXI、DAIZHUANGZUZHISHICUIHUOJIBIANCHENGGEXIANGYIXINGHUOBUGUIZEXING,TONGGUODUANZAOGAISHANTANHUAWUFENBU,BUJINNENGJIANSHAOJIBIAN,DUITIGAOGONGJIANDESHIYONGSHOUMINGYEYOULI。

 

3.畸變的校正

金巴黎彩票 DUIYURECHULIHOULINGJIANCHANSHENGDEJIBIAN,KECAIYONGLENGYAXIAOZHI、REDIANXIAOZHI、CHENREXIAOZHI、HUIHUOXIAOZHI、FANJIXIAOZHI、SUOKONGCHULIDENGFANGFA。

 

LENGYAXIAOZHISHIJIANGWANQUGONGJIANZAITUCHUDEZUIGAODIANSHIJIAWAILI,SHIZHIFASHENGSUXINGBIANXING,ZHEZHONGFANGFASHIHEYINGDUDIYU35HRCDEZHOULEIGONGJIAN;REDIANXIAOZHISHIYONGYANGYIGUIHUOYANJIARETUQIBUFEN,RANHOUYONGSHUIHUOYOUXUNSULENGQUE,SHISHOUREBUFENZAIREYINGLIZUOYONGXIASHOUSUO,ZHEZHONGFANGFASHIYONGYUYINGDUDAYU35~40HRCDEGONGJIAN;CHENREXIAOZHISHIGONGJIANCUIHUOLENGZHIMsWENDUFUJIN,LIYONGAOSHITILIANGHAODESUXINGHEXIANGBIANCHAOSUXING,SHIJIBIANDEDAOXIAOZHENG;HUIHUOXIAOZHENGSHIJIANGGONGJIANSHIJIAWAILI,ZAIJINXINGHUIHUO,HUIHUOWENDUGAOYU300℃;FANJIXIAOZHISHIYONGGANGCHUILIANXUQIAOJIAOCHU,SHIGONGJIANXIAOMIANJICHANSHENGSUXINGBIANXING;SUOKONGCHULISHIJIANGCUIHUOHOUZHANGDADEGONGJIAN,JIAREZHI600~700℃TOUHONG,WEIFANGZHIKONGNEIJINSHUI,YONGLIANGKUAIBOBANGAIZHUGONGJIANLIANGDUAN,XUNSUTOURUSHUIZHONGJILENG,LIYONGREYINGLISHIKONGSHOUSUO,JINGGUOYICIHUODUOCIZHONGFUCAOZUO,KESHIZHANGDADEKONGDEDAOXIAOZHENG。

 

4.淬火開裂

金巴黎彩票 CUIHUOKAILIESHIRECHULIYINGLICHAOGUOCAILIAODEDUANLIEQIANGDUYINQIDEKAILIEXIANXIANG。LIEWENCHENGDUANXUDECHUANLIANFENBU,DUANKOUYOUCUIHUOYOUHUOYANSHUIDEHENJI,WUYANGHUASE,LIEWENDELIANGCEYEWUTUOTANXIANXIANG。CHANSHENGCUIHUOLIEWENDECHANGHEJIYUANYINYOUXIAJIDIAN:

 

(1)CAILIAOGUANLIHUNLUAN,WUBAGAOTANGANGHUOGAOTANHEJINGANGDANGCHENGDI、ZHONGTANGANGSHIYONG,CAIYONGSHUICUI。

 

金巴黎彩票 (2)LENGQUEBUDANG。ZAIMsWENDUYIXIAKUAILENG,YINZUZHIYINGLIDAYINQIKAILIE。RUSHUI-YOUSHUANGJIEZHICUIHUO,ZAISHUIZHONGTINGLIUSHIJIANCHANG,CUIHUOYOUZHONGHANYOUGUODUOSHUIFEN。

 

(3)WEICUITOUGONGJIANXINBUYINGDUWEI36~45HRCSHI,ZAICUIYINGCENGYUFEICUIYINGCENGJIAOJIECHUXINGCHENGCUIHUOLIEWEN。XINBUYINGDUXIAOYU36HRC,JIAOJIECHULAYINGLIDEDAOXIAOJIAN。XINBUYINGDUDAYU45HRC,SHUOMINGYIYOUMASHITIZUZHI,LAYINGLIFENGZHIJIANGDI,KAILIEQINGXIANGJIANXIAO。

 

(4)JUYOUZUIWEIXIANCUILIECHICUNDEGONGJIANYIXINGCHENGCUIHUOLIEWEN。GONGJIANQUANBUCUITOUSHIYOUYIZUIWEIXIANDECUILIECHICUN,QIZHIJINGSHI:SHUICUISHIWEI8~15mm;YOUCUISHIWEI25~40mm。CHICUNXIAOYUZUIWEIXIANCUILIECHICUNSHI,XINBUYUBIAOMIANWENCHAXIAO,CUIYINGLIXIAO,BUYIKAILIE,FANZHIZENGDA,DANLAYINGLIFENGYUANLIBIAOMIAN,CUILIEQINGXIANGFANERJIANXIAO。

 

(5)YANZHONGBIAOMIANTUOTANYIXINGCHENGWANGZHUANGLIEWEN。TUOTANCENGMASHITIBITIJIXIAO,SHOUDAOLAYINGLIZUOYONG,YIXINGCHENGWANGZHUANGLIEWEN。

 

(6)NEIJINGJIAOXIAODESHENKONGGONGJIAN,NEIBIAOMIANLENGQUEJIAOWAIBIAOMIANXIAODEDUO,CANLIUREYINGLIZUOYONGXIAO,SUOSHOUDAODECANLIULAYINGLIJIAOWAIBIAOMIANDA,NEIBIYIXINGCHENGPINGXINGDEZONGXIANGLIEWEN。

 

(7)CUIHUOJIAREWENDUGUOGAO,YINQIJINGLICUHUA,JINGJIERUOHUA,GANGDECUIDUANQIANGDUJIANGDI,CUIHUOYIKAILIE。

 

(8)ZHONGFUCUIHUOQIANWEIJINGZHONGJIANTUIHUO,GUOREQINGXIANGDA,QIANXIANGDECUIHUOYINGLIWEINENGWANQUANXIAOCHU,YIJIDUOCIJIAREYINQIDEBIAOMIANTUOTAN,DOUHUICUSHICUIHUOKAILIE。

 

金巴黎彩票 (8)DAJIEMIANGAOHEJINGANGGONGJIANCUIHUOJIARESHIWEIJINGYUREHUOJIARESUDUGUOKUAI,JIARESHIDEREYINGLIHUOZUZHIYINGLIZENGDA,YINQIKAILIE。

 

金巴黎彩票 (10)YUANSHIZUZHIBULIANG,RUGAOTANGANGQIUHUATUIHUOZHILIANGQIANJIA,QIZUZHISHIPIANZHUANGHUODIANZHUANGZHUGUANGTI,REREQINGXIANGDA;JINGLICUHUA,MASHITIHANLIANGGAO,CUIHUOKAILIEQINGXIANGDA。

 

(11)YUANCAILIAOXIANWEILIEWEN,FEIJINSHUJIAZAWU,YANZHONGTANHUAWUPIANXICUIHUOKAILIEQINGXIANGZENGDA。RUFEIJINSHUJIAZAWUHUOYANZHONGTANHUAWUYANYAZHIFANGXIANGXINGCHENGDAIZHUANGGONGBU,YOUYULIXUEXINGNENGGEXIANGYIXING,QIHENGXIANGXINGNENGBIZONGXIANGXINGNENGDI30%~50%,ZAIBIAOMIANZUIDALAYINGLIZUOYONGXIA,CHANGYANFEIJINSHUJIAZAWUHUOTANHUAWUFENBUFANGXIANGCHENGZONGXIANGLIEWEN。

 

(12)DUANZAOLIEWENZAICUIHUOSHIKUODA。ZAIBIANTONGLUNEICUIHUOJIARESHI,KAILIEDEPODUANMIANSHANGYOUHEISEDEYANGHUAPI,LIEWENLIANGCEYOUTUOTANCENG。

 

(13)GUOSHAOLIEWEN。LIEWENDUOCHENGWANGZHUANG,JINGJIEYOUYANGHUAHERONGHUAXIANXIANG。

 

(14)CUITOUXINGDIDEGANG,YONGQIANZIJIACHICUIHUOSHI,BEIJIACHIBUWEICUIHUOLENGDEMAN,YOUFEIMASHITIZUZHI,QIANKOUWEIYUCUIYINGCENGYUFEICUIYINGCENGJIAOJIECHU,QILAYINGLIDA,YIKAILIE。

 

(15)GAOSUGANG、GAOGEGANGFENJICUIHUO,GONGJIANWEILENGZHISHIWEN,JIYUQINGXI(YINMsYIXIAKUAILENG)YINQIKAILIE。

 

(16)SHENLENGCHULIYINJILENGJIREXINGCHENGDEREYINGLIHEZUZHIYINGLIDOUBIJIAODA,QIEDIWENCAILIAODECUIDUANQIANGDUDI,YICHANSHENGCUIHUOKAILIE。

 

(17)CUIHUOHOUWEIJISHIHUIHUO,GONGJIANNEIBUDEXIANWEILIEWENZAICUIHUOYINGLIDEZUOYONGXIAKUOZHANXINGCHENGHONGGUANLIEWEN。

 

5.防止淬火開裂的措施

金巴黎彩票 (1)GAIJINGONGJIANJIEGOU。JIEMIANLIQIUJUNYUN,BUTONGJIEMIANCHUYINGYOUYUANJIAOGUODU,JINLIANGJIANSHAOBUTONGKONG、JIANJIAO,BIMIANYINGLIJIZHONGYINQIDEKAILIE。

(2)HELIXUANZEGANGCAI。XINGZHUANGFUZAYIKAILIEDEGONGJIAN,YINGXUANZECUITOUXINGGAODEHEJINGANGZHIZAO,YIBIANCAIYONGLENGSUHUANMANDECUIHUOJIEZHI,JIANSHAOCUIHUOYINGLI。

金巴黎彩票 (3)YUANCAILIAOYINGBIMIANXIANWEILIEWENJIYANZHONGDEFEIJINSHUJIAZAWUHETANHUAWUPIANXI。

(4)ZHENGQUEJINXINGYUXIANRECHULI,BIMIANZHENGHUO、TUIHUOZUZHIQUEXIAN。

(5)ZHENGQUEXUANZEJIARECANSHU。

(6)HELIXUANYONGCUIHUOJIEZHIHECUIHUOFANGFA。

金巴黎彩票 (7)DUIGONGJIANYIKAILIEBUWEI,RUJIANJIAO、BOBI、KONGDENGJINXINGJUBUBAOZHA。

(8)YIKAILIEGONGJIANCUIHUOHOUYINGJISHIHUIHUOHUODAIWENHUIHUO。

 

6.硬度不足

GONGJIANCUIHUOHOUBIAOMIANYINGDUDIYUSUOYONGGANGCAIYINGYOUCUIHUOYINGDUZHICHENGWEIYINGDUBUZU。CHANSHENGYINGDUBUZUDEYUANYINYOUDUOZHONG,KONGZHICUOSHIJIANBIAO1。

表 1

序號

淬火硬度不足的原因

控制措施

1

介質冷卻能力差,工件表面有鐵素體、托氏體等非馬氏體組織

采用冷卻較快的淬火介質;適當提高淬火加熱溫度

2

淬火加熱溫度低,或預冷時間長,淬火冷卻速度低,出現非馬氏體組織

在確保淬火加熱溫度正常的前提下;減少預冷時間

3

亞共析鋼加熱不足有未溶鐵素體

嚴格控制加熱溫度、保濕時間和爐溫均勻性

4

碳鋼或低合金鋼采用水-油雙介質淬火時,在水中停留時間不足,或從水中提出零件后,在空氣中停留時間過長

嚴格控制零件在水中停留時間及操作規范

5

鋼的淬透性差,且工作截面尺寸不大,不能淬硬

采用淬透性好的鋼

6

高碳高合金鋼淬火加溫度高,殘留奧氏體過量

降低淬火加熱溫度或采用深冷處理

7

等溫時間過長,引起奧氏體穩定化

嚴格控制分級或等溫時間

8

表面脫碳

采用可控制氣氛加熱或其他防脫碳措施

9

硝鹽或堿浴中水分含量過少,分級冷卻時有托氏體等非馬氏體形成

嚴格控制鹽浴和堿浴中的水分

10

合金元素內氧化,表面淬透性降低,出現托氏體等非馬氏體而內部則為馬氏體組織

降低爐內氣氛中氧化性成分含量;選用冷速快的淬火介質。

 

7.軟點

CUIHUOHOUGONGJIANBIAOMIANJUBUQUYUCHUXIANYINGDUPIANDIDEXIANXIANGCHENGWEIRUANDIAN,TANGANGHEDIHEJINGANGYOUYUCUITOUXINGJIAOCHA,TONGCHANGYICHUXIANCUIHUORUANDIAN。CHANSHENGRUANDIANDEYUANYINJIKONGZHICUOSHIJIANBIAO2。

表 2

序號

軟點開形成原因

控制措施

1

淬火時工件表面氣泡未及時破裂,致使氣泡處冷速降低,出現非馬氏體組織

增加介質與工件的相對運動;控制水溫和水中的雜質

2

工作表面局部的氧化皮、銹斑或其他附著物(涂料)淬火時未剝落,使冷速降低

淬火前清理工件表面

3

原始組織不均勻,有嚴重的帶狀組織或碳化物偏析

原材料進行鍛造和預先熱處理,使組織均勻化

8.表面腐蝕─麻點

GONGJIANCUIHUOHOUJINGSUANXIHUOPENSHA,BIAOMIANXIANXIANCHUMIDUJIAODADEDIANZHUANGAOKENGCHENGWEIMADIAN,TASHIYOUJIEZHIFUSHIXINGCHENGDE,MADIANSHIGONGJIANSHIQUGUANGZE,YINGXIANGBIAOMIANGUANGJIECHENGDU。

XINGCHENGMADIANDEYUANYINYOUDUOZHONG,DANZAIGONGZUOZHONGWOMENKEYIJIANSHAOZHEZHONGQUEXIAN,RUZAIYANYUZHONGJIANGDILIUSUANYANHANLIANG,BIMIANSHIJITISHOUDAOFUSHI;YEKEYIJIANGDIXIAOYANWENDU;GAOWENCUIHUOJIAREGONGJIANJINGYULENGCHULIHOUZAIFANGRURONGYEZHONG,BIMIANXIAOYANFENJIE;GAOWENJUBUJIARESHIDUIFEIJIAREBUWEIJINXINGJINYANCHULI,SHIZHIBAOFUYICENGGUTAIYANKE,KEFANGZHIDIANSHI。

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