金巴黎彩票

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優化發動機缸體缸蓋熔化工藝的幾種措施

來源:未知 佚名 2019-03-30 瀏覽
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  發動機缸體缸蓋是結構復雜、壁厚不均勻鑄件金巴黎彩票,鑄造性能的好壞直接影響到鑄件質量。在鑄件生產過程中熔化工藝是非常關鍵的一個環節,鑄件質量和力學性能是否符合要求、鑄件成本是否得到良好的控制跟熔化配料及合金加入量密切相關。為提高鑄件的性能和降低成本,合理選擇化學成分、優化爐料配比、鐵液過熱靜置、改善孕育處理以及優化合金元素含量等工藝是生產優質鑄件。降低生產成本的關鍵措施。本文就發動機缸體缸蓋熔煉有關的工藝改進措施總結如下,供探討。

  1 YUANGONGYISHENGCHANTIAOJIANJICUNZAIWENTI

金巴黎彩票   BIZHEGONGSISHENGCHANDEKANGMINGSIXILIECHAIYOUJIFADONGJIGANGTIGANGGAIZHUJIAN(BUXIANGGANGTAO)ZHONG 50~250 kg,PINGJUNBIHOUWEI5 mm,CAIZHIHT250。YAOQIUBENTIKANGLAQIANGDU≥207 MPa,YINGDU179-241 HB,ZHUJIANBUYUNXUYOUSHAYAN、ZHAYAN、SUOSONG、LIEWENDENGQUEXIAN。

  CAIYONG10DUNZHONGPINGANYINGDIANLURONGHUATIEYE,GUOREWENDUWEI 1 510~1 530 ℃。2012NIANQIAN,PEILIAOSHISHENGTIE:FEIGANG:HUILULIAOWEI5:2:3,RONGLIANSHIZAIZHONGPINLUDIBU1/3CHUSUILULIAOJIARU50 kgWEIJINGGUOGAOWENDUANSHAODEPUTONGZENGTANJI,RONGHUAGUOCHENGZHONGJIARUSi、Cu、Mn、Cr、SnYUANSU,CHULUSHIJIARUGUIBEIYUNYUJIJINXINGYUNYUCHULI,JIAOZHUSHIJIARUGUISIYUNYUJISUILIUYUNYU,JIAOZHUSHIJIANWEI18~22 s。

  YUANGONGYISHENGCHANDEGANGTIGANGGAIRONGLIANSHISHENGTIEJIHEJINJIARUBILIDA,SHENGCHANCHENGBENGAO,ZHUJIANZUZHICUDA,AXINGSHIMODAXIAOTONGCHANGZAI3JIZUOYOU,ZHUJIANBENTIQIANGDUJIYINGDUSANCHADA,ZHUJIANJINGJIAGONGBIAOMIANRZ>15,ZHUJIANJIXIEJIAGONGXINGNENGCHA,QIMIXINGSHIYANSHIZHUJIANXIELULVZAI2%YISHANG,KEHUBAOYUANDA。YINCI,YOUHUARONGHUAGONGYI,GAISHANZHUJIANLIXUEXINGNENG,TIGAOZHUJIANJITIZUZHIDEZHIMIXING、GAISHANZHUJIANJIAGONGXINGNENG、JIANGDISHENGCHANCHENGBENCHENGWEIBIZHEGONGSIJINNIANLAIMIANLINDEZHONGDIANKETI。

  2 YOUHUAFADONGJIGANGTIGANGGAIRONGHUAGONGYIDEJIZHONGCUOSHI

金巴黎彩票   2.1 GAOWENSHIMOHUAZENGTANJI+FEIGANGDEHECHENGZHUTIERONGLIANGONGYI

  SHENGTIEZHONGCUNZAIJUYOUYICHUANXINGDEGUOGONGJINGSHIMO,ZAIRONGHUASHI,TANYUANZIZAIYUANSHISHIMOSHANGSHENGCHANGZAOCHENGSHIMOCUDAQIEDAXIAOBUJUNYUN,SHIMOJIANTOUDEYINGLIJIZHONGXIAOYING,JIANGDILEZHUJIANDELIXUEXINGNENG。YINCIYISHENGTIEWEIZHUDEPEILIAOGONGYI,JISHIJIARUJIAOGAODEHEJINYUANSU,ZHUJIANBENTIQIANGDUPIANDI,YINGDUPIANGAO。SUIZHUHECHENGZHUTIEJISHUZAIZHUZAOXINGYETUIGUANGYINGYONG,BIZHEGONGSIZI2012NIANQICHENGGONGSHIYANTUIGUANG“FEIGANG+GAOWENSHIMOHUAZENGTANJI+SHAOLIANGSHENGTIE”DEHECHENGZHUTIEGONGYI,DAITILE“SHENGTIE+PUTONGZENGTANJI+FEIGANG+HEJIN”YUANSHENGCHANGONGYI,SHENGTIE:FEIGANG:HUILULIAO=0.5:6.5:3,XUANYONGJINGGUOGAOWENSHIMOHUACHULIDEJINGTIXINGZENGTANJIZENGTAN,MEILUFENPIJIARU150 kg。

  CAIYONGHECHENGZHUTIEGONGYI,XIAOCHULESHENGTIEZHONGCUDASHIMODEYICHUANXING,SHIMODAXIAOWEI4~5JI,SHIMOXINGTAIDEDAOGAISHAN,SHISHIMOFENBUGENGJUNYUN,TONGSHIJIANGDILEZHUJIANDESUOSONGQINGXIANG,GAISHANLEZHUJIANDEJIAGONGXINGNENG。

  2.2 TIEYEDEGUOREJINGZHI

  ZAIYIDINGFANWEINEITIGAOTIEYEDEGUOREWENDU,YANCHANGGAOWENJINGZHISHIJIAN,NENGSHISHIMOXIHUA,JITIZUZHIXIMI,KANGLAQIANGDUTIGAO;RUOJINYIBUTIGAOGUOREWENDU,TIEYEDEXINGHENENGLIXIAJIANG,SHIMOXINGTAIBIANCHA,SHENZHICHUXIANZIYOUSHENTANTI,SHIDEQIANGDUXINGNENGFANWEIXIAJIANG,YINCICUNZAIYIGE“LINJIEWENDU”。YIBANRENWEI,PUTONGHUIZHUTIEDELINJIEWENDU1 500~1 550 ℃ZUOYOU[1]。BIZHEGONGSICAIYONGGUOREWENDU1 510~1 530 ℃SHENGCHANFADONGJIGANGTIGANGGAI,GAOWENJINGZHI5~10 min,SHIMOXINGTAIDEDAOGAISHAN,BENTIQIANGDUJIWENDINGXINGDEDAOTIGAO。YOUYUGAOWENJINGZHIHECHANGSHIJIANTIEYEBAOWENHUIZAOCHENGTANDESUNSHIJIXINGHEHEXINDEJIANSHAO,ZAITIEYECHULUSHIJIARU0.03%~0.06%ZENGTANJI(LIDU0.3~0.8 mm)JINXINGYUCHULI,ZENGJIATIEYEDEXINGHEHEXIN,BINGQIDAOYIDINGDEYUNYUZUOYONG。

  2.3 YUNYUCHULIJIYUNYUJIDEXUANYONG

金巴黎彩票   DUIYUHUIZHUTIE,YUNYUDESHIZHISHIJIEZHUYUNYUJIQUYINGXIANGTIEYEDEGONGJINGFANYING,LIANGHAODEYUNYUCHULISHIHUIZHUTIEHUODEXIXIAOJUNYUNDEAXINGSHIMO、XIAOCHUTANHUAWUJIGUOLENGZUZHI,JIANSHAODUANMIANMINGANXINGJIYINGDUSANCHA,GAISHANZHUJIANLIXUEXINGNENGJIJIAGONGXINGNENGDEJIBENBAOZHANG。

  nth="12" day="30" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False" w:st="on">2.3.1 CHULUYUNYU

  合成鑄鐵因使用大量的廢鋼及增碳劑,鐵液中氮含量急劇升高,氮元素在鐵液中可成為碳化物的穩定劑,促進碳化物的形成,它對石墨生長過程有影響,并能促進珠光體形成[2]。另外氮可使石墨片長度縮短,彎曲程度增加,端部鈍化,共晶團細化和珠光體數量增多,從而提高其力學性能[3]。但是當鐵液中氮含量達到120~150 ppm時,鑄件將產生枝晶間裂隙狀氮氣孔,氮氣孔缺陷常常與縮松缺陷相混淆,不少鑄造廠將其作為縮松缺陷開展技術攻關,因判斷錯誤致使措施無效[4]。

金巴黎彩票   GAOZAITIEYEZHONGNENGSHENGCHENGZrC、Al3Zr、ZrN,JIANGDITIEYEZHONGDERONGJIEDAN,JIBENXIAOCHUZHUJIANDEDANQIKONGQUEXIAN,TONGSHIZENGJIAXICHUHEXIHUAAOSHITIZHIJING,ZENGJIASHIMOJIEJINGHEXINCUJINTIEYESHIMOHUA,TIGAOZHUTIEDEQIANGDU,BIZHEGONGSICAIYONGHECHENGZHUTIEGONGYISHENGCHANSHI,CHULUYUNYUXUANYONGGUIBEIGAOYUNYUJI,JIARULIANG0.25%~0.3%。

  nth="12" day="30" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False" w:st="on">2.3.2 SUILIUYUNYU

  孕育衰退是孕育處理過程不容忽視的問題,相比出爐孕育,隨流孕育鐵液溫度較低且孕育時間延后,從而明顯減少孕育衰退現象,提高孕育效果。對致密性要求高的發動機缸體缸蓋鑄鐵件,一般選擇0.05%~0.1%的硅鍶孕育劑。硅鍶孕育劑能夠有效促進共晶石墨化、減少鐵液的白口,但不顯著增加共晶團數,不增加鐵液的縮松傾向,對降低鑄件滲漏具有顯著的作用。
表1 兩種孕育劑加入量與缸體性能的比較數據

零件 試驗方案 試驗部位 抗拉強度/MPa 硬度
發動機缸體 0.25%硅鋇 軸承座上/下 225/210 186/179
0.25%硅鋇鋯 232/220 185/188
0.3%硅鋇 230/206 189/182
0.3%硅鋇鋯 248/230 187/184
0.35%硅鋇 219/214 192/183
0.35%硅鋇鋯 249/232 188/186
 

筆者公司2008年以前采用出爐孕育加倒包孕育兩種孕育方式,孕育劑均為硅鋇,生產的康明斯4B缸蓋,滲漏廢品率高達10%左右,后采用硅鍶隨流孕育后,滲漏廢品率降至3.52%,對比數據見表2。
金巴黎彩票 表2 倒包孕育與隨流孕育滲漏對比表

孕育劑 倒包硅鋇孕育劑孕育(平均) 硅鍶孕育劑隨流孕育(平均)
滲漏率 9.83% 3.52%

  2.4 SiCZAILULIAOZHONGDEYINGYONG

  TANHUAGUISHIYIZHONGGUIJISHENGHEJI,RONGDIANDA2 700 ℃,ZAITIEYEZHONGBURONGHUA,ANSiC+Fe=FeSi+C(FEIPINGHENGSHIMO)RONGRONGYUTIEYE,SHIZHONGSiCLIDESiYUFeJIEHE,YUXIADECJIFEIPINGHENGSHIMO,ZUOWEISHIMOXICHUDEHEXIN[5]。BINGQIETANHUAGUIHUANSHIHENHAODETUOYANGJI,HUIZHUTIE、QIUMOZHUTIEHEKEDUANZHUTIEDOUSHITONGGUOSiC+FeO=Si+Fe+COZHEGEFANYING,YONGSiCLAIJIANGDIZHAZHONGFeOHEMnODEHANLIANG[6],CONGERJINGHUATIEYE,JIANSHAOLUBIYANGHUA,YANCHANGLUBISHOUMING,ERQIETANHUAGUIKEYIDADAOZENGGUI、ZENGTANDEMUDE。

  TANHUAGUISHIYIZHONGJUYOU“FUZUHEXIN”MEICHENGDEWUZHI,TAZUOWEIZHUTIEHEJINDETIANJIAJI,JIANSHAOLEZHUJIANBAIKOUQINGXIANG,ZENGQIANGSHIMOXINGHENENGLIHEZENGJIASHIMOXINGHEZHONGXIN,DEDAOSHULIANGSHIZHONGDEGONGJINGTUANSHU,XINGCHENGFUHEYAOQIUDESHIMOXINGZHUANGHEFENBU,YINGYONGLEHECHENGZHUTIERONGHUAGONGYIHOU,LULIAOZHONGFEIGANGBILIGUOGAOYINQITIEYEHEXINSHUGUOSHAOSHI,TANHUAGUIDECHENGHEXIAOYINGKEQIDAOGUANJIANDEZUOYONG[7]。BIZHETONGGUOBUJIATANHUAGUIHEJIARU1%TANHUAGUILIANGZHONGRONGHUAGONGYIDUIZHUJIANJINXIANGZUZHI(GANGTIGANGTONGBUWEI)JINXINGBIJIAO,RONGLIANSHIJIARUYIDINGLIANGDETANHUAGUIDUITIGAOYEJINZHILIANG、GAISHANSHIMOXINGTAIYOUMINGXIANDEXIAOGUO。

  (a)BUJIATANHUAGUI 100×

金巴黎彩票   (b)JIARU1%TANHUAGUI 100×

金巴黎彩票   2.5 HEJINYUANSUDEXUANZEJIJIARULIANG

  HUIZHUTIEDEJINSHULULIAOYIBANYOUSHENGTIE、FEIGANG、HUILULIAOHEHEJINYUANSUZUCHENG,ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,HEJINYUANSUYOUCUJINZHUGUANGTI,QIANGHUAJITIZUZHI,TIGAOZHUJIANLIXUEXINGNENGHESHIYONGXINGNENGDEZUOYONG。YIBANRENWEI,ZHUTIEZHONGCHUTANHETIEWAI,YOUYIJIARUDEJINSHUYUANSUJUNZUOWEIHEJINYUANSU。BIZHEGONGSISHENGCHANFADONGJIGANGTIGANGGAIJIARUDEHEJINYUANSUYOUSi、Cu、Mn、Cr、Sn,HEJINYUANSUJIARULIANGCHAOGUOYIDINGFANWEIHOUDUITIEYEZHILIANGJIZHUJIANQIANGDUHUICHANSHENGFUMIANYINGXIANG,BINGQIESUIZHUHEJINYUANSUJIARULIANGDEZENGJIA,SHENGCHANCHENGBENXIANGYINGTIGAO。SUOYIZAICAIYONGLEHECHENGZHUTIEJISHU、YINGYONGLETANHUAGUIHEGUIBEIGAOYUNYUJIJICHUSHANG,SHIDANGJIANGDIHEJINDEBILISHIJIESHENGCAILIAO、JIANGDISHENGCHANCHENGBENDEZHONGYAOTUJING,YESHIJIANGDITIEYESHOUSUOQINGXIANG、GAISHANZHUJIANJIAGONGXINGNENGDEGUANJIANYINSU。

  nth="12" day="30" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False" w:st="on">2.5.1 GUI

金巴黎彩票   ZHUTIEZHONGDEGUIYOUYUANTIEYEGUIHEYUNYUZENGGUIZUCHENG。ZILIAOZHICHU,SHENGCHANHUIZHUTIESHI,YUNYUJIDAIJINTIEYEZHONGGUIDEZHILIANGFENSHUBUDAYU0.3%[8]。YIDINGTIAOJIANXIA,MEIZHONGYUNYUJIDOUYOUQIZUIJIAJIARULIANG。GUODUODESHIYONGYUNYUJIBUHUIDAILAIGENGDADEYUNYUXIAOGUO,FANERLANGFEIYUNYUJI、JIANGDITIEYEWENDU、ZENGJIAZHUJIANDESHOUSUOJIQIKONGHEJIAZHADENGQUEXIAN。YUNYUBUZU,TIEYEZHONGYOUXIAODEXINGHEHEXINGUOSHAO,TIEYEGUOLENGQINGXIANGJIGUOLENGSHIMOZENGJIA。

  硅是強烈促進石墨化的元素,是鑄鐵中的主要組元,硅強烈削弱Fe-C結合鍵,明顯擴大TEG~TEM區間以及顯著提高TEG三個方面影響石墨的析出,故硅比碳有更強的石墨化能力。文獻指出,當w(Si)<1.2%,即使將碳量升高至w(C)>3.5%也難獲得完全的灰口凝固[9]。因此,孕育前原鐵液必須要有一定的硅含量,其可來自生鐵、熔煉過程中隨爐料加入的硅鐵或碳化硅。原鐵液中硅含量取決于鑄件大小及結構,一般認為,冷卻速度相對較快的汽油機缸體缸蓋鑄件,原鐵液中硅含量要求相對較高,而冷卻速度相對較慢的柴油機缸體缸蓋原鐵液中硅相對要低。通過試驗對比,在相同孕育量(0.3%硅鋇鋯出爐孕育和0.05%硅鍶隨流孕育)、相同碳化硅用量及相同合金含量條件下,w(C)=3.2%~3.35%之間時,原鐵液中硅從1.4%增加到2.0%,碳化物及鐵素體減少,石墨長度變長,滲漏傾向增加。如表3所示。
表3 不同比例原鐵液硅石墨形態、級別、碳化物、鐵素體的對比數據

序號 原鐵液Si,% 石墨等級 碳化物,% 鐵素體,%
1 1.4 5 3~5 0
2 1.5 5 1~3 0
3 1.6 4-5 0~1 1
4 1.7 4-5 0~1 1
5 1.8 3-4 0~1 2
6 1.9 3-4 0~1 3
7 2.0 3 0 5
 

 YOUCIKEZHI,ZAITONGDENGYUNYUTIAOJIANXIA,YUANTIEYEZHONGGUIDUIHUIZHUTIESHIMODENGJIJUYOUYIDINGDEYINGXIANG,BIZHEGONGSISHENGCHANDEKANGMINGSICHAIYOUJIGANGTIGANGGAIZHUJIAN,YUANTIEYEGUIKONGZHIZAI1.6%~1.7%。

nth="12" day="30" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False" w:st="on">2.5.2 
錳是阻礙石墨化、促進碳化物形成的元素,在鑄鐵生產中Mn和S同時存在,Mn、S對灰鑄鐵組織和性能的影響取決于是否發生化學反應生成MnS,MnS在鐵液中是形成石墨的核心,間接起到促進石墨化的作用,因此錳對石墨化的影響是不強烈的。錳與硫化合所起的作用是以“錳硫比”來決定的,Mn=1.7S+0.3或者Mn=3.3S,灰鑄鐵鐵液中w(S)的適宜范圍是0.08%~0.12%,硫含量為0.02%與硫含量為0.1%的石墨形態相比,隨著硫含量增加,石墨長度變短,端部鈍化、形態彎曲[10]。筆者公司現在S的比例是0.1%~0.12%,由公式可得出,Mn的比例范圍應該保持在0.47%~0.504%;另外由Mn-S溶度積曲線[11]看出,碳當量為4.0%,S為0.1%~0.12%時,Mn為0.45%~0.5%。
因此,根據以上兩點論證以錳在0.5%左右的比例進行試驗驗證。試驗結果如表4。
表4 錳含量與缸體性能的數據
方案 序號 試樣編號 強度 硬度 金相組織
石墨組成 石墨長度 鐵素體 珠光體 碳化物
錳0.48% 1 14#上 232 190 A 3 0 100 1
14#下 220 188 A 3 0 100 1
2 18#上 235 187 A 3 0 100 1
18#下 222 189 A 3 0 100 1
平均     227 189 A 3 0 100 1
錳0.85% 1 23#上 198 189 A 3 0 100 1
23#下 198 179 A 3 0 100 1
2 45#上 222 185 A 3 0 100 1
45#下 197 179 A 3 0 100 1
平均     204 183 A 3 0 100 1
 
   原工藝硫含量為0.10%~0.12%,錳含量為0.7%~0.9%,將錳含量降至0.5%左右時,試驗表明,鑄件的本體強度并沒有降低,反而有升高的趨勢,所以控制錳的含量在0.46%~0.55%之間。如果加入的錳量過高,一方面,隨著錳量增加,與Mn結合的S就多,使鐵液中自由w(S)量降低。S被大量消耗后,石墨會變得平順,長度變長,端部的鈍化效果變差;另一方面過量的錳會形成MnS夾雜物,大量MnS夾雜物,一部分會成為石墨的晶核,另一部分則發生聚集,形成局部密集的MnS排列,Mn強化基體的合金化作用被MnS的不利影響壓制,降低了灰鑄鐵性能。但是錳含量也不是越低越好,錳含量太低,會使鐵液氧化傾向增大,流動性變差,收縮傾向增加[10]。

金巴黎彩票   nth="12" day="30" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False" w:st="on">2.5.3 GE

  GETIESHIGAORONGDIANDEZHENGPIANXIYUANSU,JUYOUHENQIANGDEXINGCHENGTANHUAWUDENENGLI,JIARUDAOYUANTIEYEZHONG,w(Cr)LIANGSHANGXIANBUYAOCHAOGUO0.35%[10]。DANGGEHANLIANGPIANGAOSHI,YICUJINJINGJIETANHUAWUXINGCHENG,HUIZHUTIEZHONGDETANHUAWUCHUFENBUZAIGONGJINGTUANJIANWAI,YOUSHIHUANFENBUZAIGONGJINGTUANNEIDEFENGWOJIEGOUZHONG。YINWEIFENGWONEICUNZAIYOUCANYUYETI,NINGGUJIAOWAN,RUGUOTANHUAWUXINGCHENGYUANSUBEITUIYIDAOZHUJIANZHONGXIN,JIANGZAIZHUJIANDUANMIANZHONGXINBUSHENGCHENGDALIANGLAISHITI,BINGFENBUYUCHUSHENGAOSHITIZHIJINGZHONG。CISHI,ZHUJIANNEIBUHUIXINGCHENGBAIKOUNINGGU,CHUXIANFANBAIKOUXIANXIANG[12]。XIANGDUIYUTONGHEXI,GETIEJIAGEDI,QIEXIANZHUCUJINZHUGUANGTI,SHIZHUGUANGTINEIDESHENTANTIPIANCENGBIANWEIHEJINSHENTANTI(Fe,Cr)value="3" hasspace="False" negative="False" numbertype="1" tcsc="0" w:st="on">3C,TIGAOZHUJIANDEQIANGRENXINGHENAIMOXING,WEILETIGAOLIXUEXINGNENG、JIANSHAOZHUJIANSHENLOUFENGXIAN,BIZHEGONGSISHENGCHANDEGANGTIGANGGAIJIARUGETIEBILIKONGZHIZAI0.16%~0.23%。

  nth="12" day="30" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False" w:st="on">2.5.4 TONG

金巴黎彩票   TONGJIARUTIEYEZHONGZHUYAOCHANSHENGLIANGFANGMIANZUOYONG。YIFANGMIAN,TONGSHIYIZHONGCUJINZHUGUANGTIXINGCHENGDEFANPIANXIYUANSU,TONGDEJIARUKEQIDAOZENGJIAHEWENDINGJITIZHONGZHUGUANGTIZUZHIDEZUOYONG;LINGYIFANGMIAN,TONGYOUSHIYIZHONGWEIRUOCUJINSHIMOHUADEYUANSU,KEBUFENDIXIAOGEYUANSUZENGDABAIKOUQINGXIANGDEBULIYINGXIANG,YOULIYUBAOZHENGTIEYEDEZHUZAOGONGYIXINGNENG。

  TONGDUIHUIZHUTIEDEKANGLAQIANGDU、QUFUQIANGDU、YINGLIDANXINGMOLIANGDEYINGXIANGJIBENYIZHI。DANGJIARU0.5%TONGSHI,HUIZENGJIAKANGLAQIANGDU、QUFUQIANGDU,SHIDANXINGMOLIANGSHANGSHENG;TONGHANLIANGWEI0.8%SHI,QIANGDUZUIGAO;CHAOGUO0.8%SHI,SUIZHUHANTONGLIANGDEZENGJIA,ZHUTIEDEQIANGDUHECHONGJIRENXINGDOUJIANGDI[13]。

  TONGHANLIANGWEI0.5%~0.8%SHI,QIANGDUHECHONGJIRENXINGBIANHUAWEIXIAO,GUXUANZETONGHANLIANGWEI0.5%ZUOYOUJINXINGSHIYANYANZHENG。JINGDUOCISHIYANYANZHENG,FADONGJIGANGTIGANGGAITONGDEBILIKONGZHIZAI0.45%~0.56%,FUHEZHUJIANDELIXUEXINGNENG。

  nth="12" day="30" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False" w:st="on">2.5.5 XI

  錫是低熔點的反偏析元素,鑄鐵中加入錫元素可以增加珠光體含量,細化共晶團及珠光體,促進厚壁處的珠光體數量,但不會使薄壁處出現白口,降低斷面的敏感性。灰鑄鐵中加入0.03%~0.12%錫時,可獲得鑄態珠光體組織,但珠光體數量很多的鑄鐵,加入Sn元素,效果不明顯[14]。一般的w(Sn)加入量在0.02%~0.04%,過高,有可能會使材料變脆[10]。筆者公司以錫在0.03%~0.05%進行試驗驗證,試驗效果見表5。
表5 錫含量與缸體性能的數據

零件 方案 強度 硬度 金相組織
石墨組成 石墨大小 珠光體 滲碳體
6B缸體 錫0.075% 215 190 A 3 100 1
220 193 A 3 100 1
平均 218 192 A 3 100 1
錫0.042% 220 191 A 3 100 1
218 191 A 3 100 1
平均 219 191 A 3 100 1
錫0.035% 215 190 A 3 100 1
219 188 A 3 100 1
平均 217 189 A 3 100 1
 

   KANGMINGSIGANGTIGANGGAIZHUJIANYAOQIUBENTIQIANGDU≥207 MPa,XIHANLIANGWEI0.03%~0.05%,ZHUJIANLIXUEXINGNENGWANQUANMANZUJISHUYAOQIU。TONGGUOSHIYANTONGJI,DANGXIHANLIANG≥0.05%SHI,QIDUILIXUEXINGNENGDEGAISHANXIAOGUOBUMINGXIAN。

  nth="12" day="30" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False" w:st="on">2.5.6 FENXITAOLUN

金巴黎彩票   WENXIANZHICHU,LIANGZHONGYISHANGHEJINYUANSUDEPEIHESHIYONG,YONGYIZHONGHEJINYUANSUHELINGYIZHONGHEJINYUANSUPEIHE,FANGZHILINGYIZHONGHEJINYUANSUYICHANSHENGBAIKOUQINGXIANGJISHENGCHENGTANHUAWUDEKENENG[15]。BIZHEGONGSISHENGCHANGANGTIGANGGAIJIARUDEHEJINYUANSUMENG、GESHIZHENGPIANXIYUANSU,PIANLISHIMOPIANXIYUJINGJIE,GUI、TONG、XISHIFANPIANXIYUANSU,XIFUYUSHIMO[16],WEILEKEFUYUANSUPIANXIDEBULIYINGXIANG,RONGLIANSHITONGSHITIANJIAZHENG、FANPIANXIYUANSU,LIYONGQIZONGHEXINGNENG,DEDAOXIWANGDEZHUGUANGTIZUZHIHELIXUEXINGNENG。

金巴黎彩票   3 JINGJIXIAOYIFENXI

金巴黎彩票   3.1 HECHENGZHUTIEDEYINGYONGQUDEJINGJIXIAOYI

  CAIYONGHECHENGZHUTIEGONGYI,LIYONGSHENGTIEHEFEIGANGDEJIACHA,KEJIANGDIZHUCAICHENGBEN。SHENGTIEZHONGHANYIDINGDETAN(YUE4.3%)、GUI(YUE1.2%),YINCISHENGCHANHECHENGZHUTIESHIXUYAOBUJIAYIDINGLIANGDEZENGTANJIHEGUITIE,MEIDUNTIEYEZENGJIACHENGBEN225YUAN,DANGSHENGTIEHEFEIGANGDANDUNCAIGOUCHENGBENJIACHAWEI480YUANSHI,JINGCESUANMEIDUNZHUJIANJIANGDIZHUCAICHENGBENYUE200YUAN,CAIYONGFEIGANGDAITISHENGTIEDEHECHENGZHUTIERONGLIANFANGSHIYOUMINGXIANDEJINGJIXIAOYI。

  3.2 DIHEJINHUAJIANGDIZHUCAICHENGBEN

  通過采用合成鑄鐵工藝,合理設計合金元素的加入量,降低了發動機缸體缸蓋的主材成本,每噸降低成本200元左右(以缸體為例),數據見表6-表7,若一年生產25 000 t鑄件,直接經濟效益將近500萬元。
表6 B缸體低合金化后每噸降低的成本數據

項目 Si Mn Cu Sn
下限 上限 下限 上限 下限 上限 下限 上限
原工藝/% 1.75 1.85 0.70 0.90 0.65 0.75 0.06 0.09
新工藝/% 1.60 1.70 0.46 0.55 0.45 0.53 0.04 0.05
原工藝/% 1.80 0.80 0.70 0.08
新工藝/% 1.65 0.51 0.49 0.04
減少量/% 0.15 0.30 0.21 0.04
合金單價(元/kg) 5.68 6.27 51.75 128.89
減少成本(元/t) 12.17 28.46 108.89 45.20
合計(元/t) 194.72
 

BIAO7 DGANGTIDIHEJINHUAHOUMEIDUNJIANGDIDECHENGBENSHUJU

項目 Si Mn Cu Sn
下限 上限 下限 上限 下限 上限 下限 上限
原工藝/% 1.85 1.95 0.70 0.90 0.65 0.75 0.09 0.11
新工藝/% 1.60 1.70 0.46 0.55 0.48 0.56 0.05 0.06
原工藝/% 1.90 0.80 0.70 0.10
新工藝/% 1.65 0.51 0.52 0.06
減少量/% 0.25 0.30 0.18 0.05
合金單價(元/kg) 5.68 6.27 51.75 128.89
減少成本(元/t) 20.29 28.46 93.34 58.12
合計(元/t) 200.20
 

金巴黎彩票    3.3 ZHILIANGCHENGBEN

  TONGGUOYOUHUARONGHUAGONGYI、CAIQUCUOSHIHOU,FADONGJIGANGTIGANGGAIDESHENLOULVCONG2%JIANGDIDAO1%YIXIA,JINGGUOYIDUANSHIJIANYANZHENG,SHENLOUFEIPINLVHENWENDING。RUOYINIANSHENGCHANFADONGJI15WANTAI,YINIANJIUKEYIJIANSHAOFEIPINJIANGJIN1 500TAI,JIANGDIZHILIANGCHENGBEN200YUWANYUAN。

  4 JIELUN

金巴黎彩票   (1)CAIYONGHECHENGZHUTIEJISHUSHENGCHANHUIZHUTIEDEGUOCHENGZHONG,XIAOCHULESHIMOCUDADAILAIDEYICHUANXIAOYING,TIGAOLEZHUJIANYINGDUDEJUNYUNXING,JIANSHAOLESUOSONGQINGXIANG,XIHUALESHIMO,GAISHANLEZHUJIANDEQIEXUEJIAGONGXINGNENG。SHIYONGJINGGUOGAOWENSHIMOHUADEZENGTANJISHISHENGCHANHECHENGZHUTIEDEGUANJIANSUOZAI。

金巴黎彩票   (2)TANHUAGUIDESHIYONGZENGJIALESHIMOXINGHENENGLI,JIANSHAOLEBAIKOUQINGXIANG,TIGAOLEZHUJIANDEKANGLAQIANGDU。

  (3)FEIGANGYONGLIANGZENGDAHOU,SHIYONGGUIBEIGAOYUNYUJI,KEYIZHIYUNYUSHUAITUIJIANSHAODANQIKONG。

金巴黎彩票   (4)HELISHEJIHEJINYUANSUDEJIARULIANG,DAFUDUJIANGDILESHENGCHANCHENGBENJIZHILIANGCHENGBEN,JIANGDIKEHUBAOYUANDU,TIGAOLEQIYEDEJINGZHENGLI。

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