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箱體鑄件的分析與研究

來源:未知 佚名 2019-09-16 瀏覽
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  1、化學成分的選擇 根據鑄鐵牌號要求即機械性能的高低,應使鑄件具有相應的金相組織。金相組織取決于石墨的結晶過程,而共晶和共析轉變過程的石墨化又和鑄鐵的化學成分及冷卻速度等工藝因素有關。灰鑄鐵中除C,Si,Mn,S,P五種常規元素外,還有隨爐料或熔煉過程進入的微量元素和其它夾雜,為了獲取“高強、薄壁"的鑄件,生產廠家加入了一些合金元素如Ni,Cr,Cu,Sn,VMo等。所有這些元素對鑄鐵的結晶、組織及性能都有一定的影響和作用。

金巴黎彩票   (1)JIBENHUAXUECHENGFENDEXUANZE

  ①TANHANLIANGYUCEDEXUANZE: CAIYONGGAODETANDANGLIANG,KEJIANXIAOBAIKOUQINGXIANGJIZHUJIANSUOSONG、SHENLOUDENGQUEXIAN,DANTONGSHIHUIJIANGDIZHUJIANDELIXUEXINGNENG。ERDUIYUFADONGJIXIANGTIZHEYANGBOBIFUZADEZHUJIAN,CONGZHUZAOXINGNENGKAOLV,YIBANDOUXUANZEJIAOGAODETANDANGLIANG[13]。WEISHIXIANGTIJUYOULIANGHAODEZHUZAOXINGNENGYULIXUEXINGNENG,YIBANXUANZEC=3.15%~3.3%,CE=3.95%~4.05%。

  ②GUIYUSi/CZHI GUONEIDUIXIANGTISHENGCHANZHONGSi/CDEKONGZHIWENTIZHENGLUNJIAODA。LUWENHUA[9]RENWEIZAICE=4.O~4.2%,Si/CZHIYOUO.50ZENGZHIO.90SHI,TANDANGLIANGDUI%ZHIYINGXIANGBIANHUABUDA。LIUYOUPING[14]RENWEITANDANGLIANGDUIHUIZHUTIEKANGLAQIANGDUDEYINGXIANGBISi/CZHIDADEDUO,SHIYANZHENGMINGSUIZHUSi/CZHIYOUO.44ZENGZHI0.79,ZAITONGYIFANWEIDETANDANGLIANGXIA,06ZHIBIANHUABUDA。TIGAOTANDANGLIANG,QIXIANGTIDESUOKONGFEIPINHUIMINGXIANJIANSHAO;JIANGDITANDANGLIANG,SHIYONGZHUZAOJIAOYUZENGJIAFEIGANGJIARULIANG,HUITIEDEKANGLAQIANGDUHUIMINGXIANDITIGAO。GUOGAODESi/CBIHUIDAOZHISHIMOCUHUA,ZHUGUANGTIPIANJIANJUZENGDA,TIESUTIHANLIANGYEZENGJIA。DANGSi/C>0.55,QIXIANGTISUOKONGFEIPINHUIZENGJIA,TEBIE

  ZAIDITANDANGLIANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,SUOKONGFEIPINZENGJIADEGENGDUO。DUIYUCAIYONGJIAOGAOTANDANGLIANGTIEYEDEXIANGTIZHUJIAN,CAIYONGGAOSi/CBINGBUNENGTIGAOLIXUEXINGNENG,ERQIEHUANKENENGYOUYUGAOCEHEGAODESi/CSHUANGZHONGYINGXIANGERSHISHIMOCUDAHEZHUGUANGTILIANGXIAJIANG,CONGERSHIKANGLAQIANGDUXIAJIANG,QISI/CYINGYI0.6"0.7JIAOWEIHESHI[15]。

金巴黎彩票   MENGDUIHUIZHUTIEKANGLAQIANGDUDEYINGXIANG MENGSHIKEYIWENDINGHUIZHUTIEZHONGSHENTANTI,CUJINZHUGUANGTIHUADEYUANSU,DANTAHUIYULIUXINGCHENGMnS,CUSHIZHUTIESHIMOHUA。DUIYUCEWEI3.95%"--4.15%DEHUIZHUTIE,QIJIZHISUIMENGLIANGDEZENGJIAERYOUSUOTIGAO,YINWEITANDANGLIANGGAO,ZHUTIEZISHENDESHIMOSHUDUOQIECU,ZHUGUANGTISHULIANGSHAO,ZENGJIAMENGHANLIANG,SHIMOXINGMAOBIANHUABUDA,CISHIMENGCUSHIHUIZHUTIEZHUGUANGTIHUADEZUOYONGBIAOXIANJIAOQIANG,GUHOUYOUSUOTIGAO。SUOYI,FANXIAOMING[l6]DENGRENWEIDANGHUIZHUTIECE>3.95%SHI,MnHANLIANGYINGZAI0.6%--YI0.8%WEIYI。

  磷含量的選擇 鑄鐵件金巴黎彩票的含磷量一般小于O.20%。當P≤0.20%,隨著磷含量的增加,在鑄鐵中可以與Fe形成心P,灰鑄鐵的抗拉強度變化不大,而硬度會明顯提高而韌性顯著降低。灰鑄鐵中磷含量過高,不僅鑄件切削加工困難,而且易產生縮松與開裂缺陷[14]。

  HANLIULIANGJIMENGLIUBIDUIHUIZHUTIEKANGLAQIANGDUDEYINGXIANG LIUZAIZHUTIEZHONGYOUSHUANGZHONGZUOYONG,YIFANGMIANTASHIQIANGLIEWENDINGZHUTIESHENTANTIYUANSU,LINGYIFANGMIANSYUMnXINGCHENGMnS,HUICUSHIZHUTIESHIMOHUA。ZAIBUTONGCEDEQINGKUANGXIA,YIZHIJUNSUIHANLIULIANGDEZENGJIAERMINGXIANTIGAO,DANDANGHANLIULIANGCHAOGUOMOUYILINJIEZHISHIQIANGDUKAISHIJIANGDI。DUIYUCEWEI3.95%DEHUIZHUTIE,QILINJIELIUHANLIANGWEI0.14%。RUCAIYONGDIANLURONGLIANSHI,TIESHUIZHONGDEHANLIULIANGYIBANJIAODI,GAOWENSHIDALIANGSHIMOJIEJINGHEXINSHAOSUN[17],WEIQUEBAOCHANGYONGYUNYUJIDEYUNYUXIAOGUO,HUIZHUTIEZHONGHANLIULIANGYIBANWEI0.05%--YI0.06%。GENJUSHANGSHUQINGKUANG,HUIZHUTIEDELIUHANLIANGKEWEI0.06%'-'0.15%。YOUYUMENGYULIUZAIZHUTIEZHONGYOUXIANGHUZHIYUEDEZUOYONG,SUOYIZAIXUANZEMENGHANLIANGYULIUHANLIANGSHIBIXUKAOLVMn/SZHI。SHENGCHANSHIJIANBIAOMING,DANGHUIZHUTIECEWEI3.96%,---,4.05%SHI,Mn/S=5~7,KANGLAQIANGDUJIAOJIA。

金巴黎彩票   GUONEIBUFENCHANGJIAXIANGTIJIBENHUAXUECHENGFENDEXUANZE HUJIACONG[15]TUIJIANHT250QIXIANGTIHUAXUECHENGFENWEI(%):C=3.15~3.35,Si=1.8~2.2,Mn=0.6"--0.8,P≤O.15,S=0.06%~0.15%YUCE=3.95~4.05。BEIJINGJIPUQICHEYOUXIANGONGSI[18]TUIJIANXUANQUC=3.15%~3.60%,Si=1.8%~2.4%,Mn=0.35~0.90%,S≤O.15%,P≤0.12%.。HAERBINDONGANFADONGJIZHIZAOGONGSI[19]XUANZECHENGFEN:C=3.O~3.5%,Si=1.8~2.5%,Mn=0.6%~0.9%,S<0.15%,P<0.15%。

金巴黎彩票   HEJINHUAYUANSU SUIZHUQIYOUJIXIANGGAOZHUANSUDAGONGLVFANGXIANGFAZHAN,XIANGTIDEGONGZUOQINGKUANGEHUA,JIXIEFUHEJIADA,

  YINCICAIYONGDIHEJINHUIZHUTIEZHIZAO,YITIGAOXIANGTIZHUJIANDEJIXIEXINGNENGYUREPILAOXINGNENG。CHANGYONGDEHEJINYUANSUWEICUJINHUIZHUTIEZHUGUANGTIHUAYUANSU,ZHEXIEHEJINYUANSUDUIHUIZHUTIESHIMOHUANENGLI、KANGLAQIANGDUHEYINGDUDEYINGXIANGJIANTU1.1,lYI2SUOSHI。

  TU1.1HEJINYUANSUDUIHUIZHUTIESHIMOHUADEYINGXIANG

  TU1.2HEJINYUANSUDUIHUIZHUTIEYINGDUHE%DEYINGXIANG YOUTU1.2ZHI,DANGHEJINYUANSUJIARULIANGZAI1.0%YIXIASHI,TIGAOHUIZHUTIEKANGLAQIANGDUDENENGLI,YOURUOZHIQIANGDESHUNXUPAILIE:Ni,Cu,Cr,Mo,V。FANTIGAOHUIZHUTIE06DENENGLIHENDA,DANTANENGZUAIZHUTIEZHONGCDESHIMOHUA,BAIKOUQINGXIANGHENDA,SUOYIXIANGTIYONGHUIZHUTIEZHONGYIBANBUJIARUV。MUYUNIEDEJIAGEANGGUI,KAOLVDAOCHENGBEN,YIBANHENSHAOSHIYONG。YIBANYONGTONGDAITINIE,PUBIANJIARUGEYUTONGSHENGCHANHUIZHUTIEXIANGTI。XI、TONGYUGESHIQIANGLIEWENDINGZHUGUANGTIDEYUANSU,DANDUIXIHUAZHUGUANGTIDEZUOYONGHENXIAO。ZHIYOUDANGTONGHANLIANGDAYU0.5%SHIHUIZHUTIEDEKANGLAQIANGDUCAIYOUMINGXIANDETIGAO1141。JIARU0.2%"--0.3%GEHOU,ZHUTIEQIANGDUTIGAOFUDUJIAODA,YOULIYUZENGJIAZHUGUANGTILIANGHEGAISHANSHIMOXINGTAI。DANGHANGELIANGDAYU0.35%SHI,HUISHIZHUJIANSHENLOUQINGXIANGMINGXIANZENGJIA;HANGELIANGDAYU0.5%SHI,ZHUJIANZHONGYICHUXIANCHUSHENGTANHUAWU,YINGXIANGJIJIAGONGXINGNENG,GUJIAGELIANGYIBUCHAOGUO0.35%WEIYI。SHIJIANBIAOMING,DANGGEHANLIANGDAYU0.35%SHI,QIXIANGGAILUOKONGDAZICHUHUICHANSHENGSUOSONG,CHANSHENGLOUQI[l5]。LIANGZHONGYISHANGHEJINYUANSUPEIHESHIYONGDEXIAOGUOYAOBIYONGYIZHONGHEJINYUANSUDEXIAOGUOHAO,RUCuNENGZHONGHECr、MoDEBAIKOUQINGXIANG。 HUIZHUTIEZHONGJIARUCr,CuYUMoDENGSHAOLIANGHEJINYUANSU,ZHUJIANDEQIANGDUYUREPILAOXINGNENGYOUSUOTIGAO,ZHUJIANDEBIHOUMINGANXINGYOUSUOJIANXIAO,DANZHUJIANDESUOKONGYUSUOSONGQINGXIANGZENGDA,YINCIYINGSHIDANGTIGAOTANHANLIANGYUTANDANGLIANG。GUONEIFADONGJIXIANGTIYONGHUIZHUTIEDEHUAXUECHENGFENSHILIJIANBIAO1-4。 BIAO1-4GUONEIFADONGJIXIANGTIYONGHUIZHUTIE[14][17][19]

  (3)WEILIANGYOUHAIYUANSUDEKONGZHI ZAIRONGLIANSHI,HUILULIAOHESHENGTIEZHONGDEFEIGANGYOUSHIHUIHANYOUPb,TiDENGYUANSU,ZHEXIEYUANSUDECUNZAIHUISHIZHUJIANZHONGSHIMOEHUAJICHANSHENGSUOSONGSHENLOUQUEXIAN。YOUZILIAOCHENG[20],HANPbLIANGDA0.0008%,JIKEZAOCHENGSUOSONGSHENLOU,XUZHUYISHIYONGDELULIAOZHONGSHIFOUDUYOUPbCAILIAO,YOUXUXIANXINGCHUQUDUCENG。CIWAI,SHAOLIANGDEPbKEZAIHUIZHUTIEZHONGCHUXIANWEISHIZUZHISHIMO,YANZHONGJIANGDIQIANGDU。PANLIANGXINGDENG[l8]ZAI4100QBSHENGCHANZHONGFAXIANWEILIANGYUANSUWTi>0.0435SHI,CHUXIANSUOSONGDEXIANGGAIZHANSHENGCHANSUOSONGXIANGGAIZONGSHUDE75%ZUOYOU,YOUCIPANDUANTiDUISUOSONGYOUJIAOWEIZHIJIEDEYINGXIANG,BINGTUIJIANSHIYONGWTi<0.08%DESHENGTIE。CIWAIYINGXIANGSUOSONGSHENLOUDEWEILIANGYUANSUHUANYOUAl,vDENG,TAMENDOUHUIZENGJIATIEYEDESHOUSUOQINGXIANG,YAOYANGEKONGZHI。

金巴黎彩票   YUNYUCHULI ZAIGAOTANDANGLIANGTIEYETIAOJIANXIA,WEITIGAOHUIZHUTIEDEXINGNENG,KONGZHITIEYEZHILIANG,JINXINGHELIDEYUNYUCHULISHIBIYAODECUOSHIZHIYI。YOUZILIAOBIAOMING[21],ZAIGAOTANDANGLIANGTIAOJIANXIA,YOUQISHISHENGCHANBOBIGAOQIANGHUIZHUTIEJIAN,SHIYONGFUHEXINGYUNYUJISHISHIFENZHONGYAODE。FUHEYUNYUJIHANYOUXIANGYINGDESHIMOHUAYUANSURURe,A1,Ca,TiDENG,YIGAISHANSHIMOXINGTAI、XIAOCHUBAIKOU,ZENGJIABINGXIHUAAOSHITIZHIJING。JINGSHIYANBIAOMING,ZAIFUHETIANJIACrDENGHEJINYUANSUDETONGSHITIANJIARE(XITULEIYUANSU),JINENGHUODEXIANGDANGYURUMOZHUTIEDEKANGLAQIANGDU,YOUNENGYIZHIJILENGDEFASHENG,QIEYESHIHEPILIANGSHENGCHAN [2] 。YUNYUYEYOUFUZUOYONG[23]。XIHUAGONGJINGTUANDEJIEGUOCHANGCHANGDAOZHISUOSONGDEZENGJIA,YOUYUYUNYUJIZHONGHANYOULV,YUNYULIANGGUOGAOYEHUIMUTIESHUIZHONGHANLVLIANGZENGJIAERCHANSHENGZHENKONGQUEXIAN。YUNYUTIGAOZHUTIEDECHENGHECHENGDU,ZENGJIAGONGJINGTUANDESHUMU,DAOZHININGGUGUOCHENGZHONGZUOYONGZAIZHUXINGSHANGDEPENGZHANGLIZENGDA,QIJIEGUOKENENGSHIZHUJIANCHANSHENGSUOKONGHESUOSONG,YINCIZAIXIANGTISHENGCHANZHONGTEBIEYAOZHUYIKONGZHIYUNYULIANG。WUZHIZHONGDENG[24]SHIYANBIJIAOLE75SiFe,SiCaHESiCaBaXIYUNYUJIDUIHUIZHUTIEXIANWEIZUZHIJUNYUNXINGDEYINGXIANG。JIEGUOFAXIAN,GAISHANDUANMIANMINGANXINGZHUYAOZAIYUJIEJUEBODUANMIAN(RUBIHOU5ram)DESHIMOHUAWENTI。HANCa,BaDEYUNYUJIYOULIANGHAOSHIMOHUANENGLI,KEGAISHANDUANMIANMINGANXINGHEXIANWEIZUZHIDEJUNYUNXING。FANXIAOMINGDENG[25]SHIYANDEJINGXITUFUHEYUNYUJIRCCCHULIDETIEYE(CE=4.00"-'-4.20%,Si/C≈0.75,Cr=0.4%HEMo=O.4%),KEWENDINGHUODEHT250YISHANGPAIHAODEHUIZHUTIE,QIEDUANMIANJUNYUNXINGHAO,BAIKOUQINGXIANGDI。JIANGJINWEN[26]YI60%75SiFe+40%ReCaBaFUHEYUNYU、DIHEJINHUA、CE=3.9--..4.1%DESHIYANZHUTIE,HUODELELIANGHAODEXIANWEIZUZHI。WANRENFANGRENWEIDUIYUCE=4.0~4.2%DEGAOTANDANGLIANGTIESHUI,Cr,MoFUHEDIHEJINHUAJIARU,YONG75FeSiYUNYU,KEYIHUODEHT250ZHUTIE,RUOYONGFUHEYUNYUJIYUNYU,KESHITIESHUIWENDINGHUODEHT250PAIHAO,QIEDUANMIANJUNYUNXINGHAO,RECHONGJI、REPILAOXINGNENGXIANGYINGTIGAO;CAIYONGCE=4.1~4.2%DETIESHUI,YIMnDAITIBUFENCr,MoHEJINHUA,BINGYONGFUHEYUNYUJIYUNYU,TONGYANGKEYIHUODEHT250PAIHAOZHUTIE。ZAISHIJIYINGYONGZHONG,BEIJINGNONGYEGONGCHENGDAXUEHEBEIJINGNEIRANJIZONGCHANGCAIYONGRe.Ba.CaYUNYUCHULI,DIYIQICHEZHIZAOCHANGHESHENYANGZHUZAOSUOCAIYONGcr.Sr.Si.FeFUHEYUNYUCHULI,JUNQUDELIANGHAOXIAOGUO。

金巴黎彩票   YOUZHITIEYEDEHUODE BAOZHENGGAOQIANGDUHUIZHUTIECAIZHIXINGNENGDEQIANTITIAOJIANSHIHUODEGAOWENYOUZHITIEYE[27]。JIANYISHIYONGCHONGTIANLUHEGONGPINDIANLUSHUANGLIANRONGLIAN,YIHUODELIXIANGDETIEYEZHILIANG[28]。WOGUOCHONGTIANLUHENSHAOYOUCHANGJIACAIQUGAOWENREFENG、FUYANGSONGFENGDENGCUOSHI,DUIJIAOTANZHILIANGBUGOUZHONGSHI,HUIFENDA,QIANGDUDI,HENSHAOSHIYONGZHUZAOJIAOTAN,ZHIZHUZHONGJIEJIAO,HULVERONGLIANWENDU,JIAOHAODECHONGTIANLUTIESHUICHULUWENDUZHIYOU1450℃ZUOYOU,TIESHUICHENGFENBODONGFANWEIDA。YOUYURONGLIANWENDUDI,HENNANXIAOCHUSHENGTIEZHONGCUDASHIMODEYICHUANXING[29]。DANGRONGLIANWENDUZAI1450"-"1500℃SHI,Si02+2CDOUSi+2COGEFANYINGCAINENGJINXING。KECUSHITIESHUIZHONGFEIJINSHUJIAZAWUPAICHU,TIESHUIDEDAOJINGHUA,HANYANGLIANGJIANGDI,SHIYUNYUJIZHONGDEHUOXINGYUANSUGAI、LVDENGCHONGFENFAHUICHENGHEZUOYONG。TONGSHIGAOWENJIAOZHUSUIRANNENGGOUYANHUANZHUJIANNINGGU,CUJINSHIMOHUA,BINGSHIXINGQIANGZHONGDEQITIHEZAZHIZAININGGUQIANSHANGFU,DANGAOWENCUSHISHIMOCHANGCU,CUDASHIMOJIAJUDUIJITIQIEGEZUOYONGERSHIXINGNENGJIANGDI。CIWAITIESHUISHOUSUOZENGJIA,CUSHIZHUJIANNEIBUCHANSHENGSUOKONGYUSUOSONG。YINCICHULUWENDUYINGZAI1480℃YISHANG。BCIRA[23JRENWEI,DUIDADUOSHUXIANGTILAISHUO,ZUISHIYIDEJIAOZHUWENDUWEI1390"-"1420℃。 CIWAILULIAOPEIBIDUITIESHUIDEYEJINTEXINGYEJUYOUYIDINGDEYINGXIANG。DUIHECHENGZHUTIEDEYANJIUBIAOMING,HECHENGZHUTIEYOUYUTIGAOLEFEIGANGDEJIARULIANG,TIESHUIDEYEJINTEXINGGAISHAN,CONGERNENGGENGHAODIFAHUIYUNYUCHULIDEXIAOGUO[30]。DANSHI,WENXIAN[3l]ZERENWEI,TIGAOLULIAOZHONGSHENGTIEDEJIARULIANG,KEYIXIANZHUDIJIANGDICAILIAODEYINGDUHESHOUSUO,CONGERBIMIANSUOKONGDENGQUEXIAN,GAISHANQIEXUEJIAGONGXINGNENG。RENWEILULIAOPEIBIMEIYINGXIANGDEGUANDIANYEYOU。RUYOUBAODAO[32]RENWEI,ZAIDIANLUBAOWENTIAOJIANXIA,FEIGANGJIARULIANG

  DUIKANGLAQIANGDUDEYINGXIANGBUMINGXIAN,KANGLAQIANGDUJINQUJUEYUCEDEBIANHUA,ERQIELULIAOPEIBIDUIHUIZHUTIEDEZUZHIYEMEIYOUSHENMEYINGXIANG。

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